• South Africa s Largest Open Pit MineNASA

    Copper mining began at Palabora in 1965 and by 1967 the open pit mine was fully operational The hole reached 800 meters down into the Earth before the depletion of resources made it uneconomical to continue mining in the pit Operations moved underground below the pit and mostly out of sight in the early 2000s

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  • Optimising Open Pit to Underground Cut over Part Two

    Given that underground mining profits are less dependent on depth there will likely be a point where the marginal profit of the underground exceeds that of the open pit Using this method the cut over point is the depth at which the marginal profit from the open pit is equal to the marginal profit from the underground

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  • Measurement of displacement for open pit to underground

    1 Introduction In recent years more and more high steep slopes were formed through years of open pit mining around the world Open pit to underground mining transition is normally resulted from exhausting of shallow resources This is quite dangerous as it may threaten the stability of high steep slopes order to ensure safety production of those mines many research methods were

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  • Optimization of the transition from open pit to

    the change of mining method from open pit to underground Accurate determination of this depth is of utmost importance In combined open pit and underground mining it is likely that block mass or panel caving systems are the most practicable underground methods achieving high production rates and low costs Fuentes and Caceres 2004 A

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  • Optimizing the Open Pit to Underground Mining Transition

    Underground mining is used when an economically viable deposit is situated suciently deep such that open pit mining is cost prohibitive There exist many underground mining techniques i open stoping Figure 1 ii room and pillar iii sublevel caving iv drift and fill v

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  • How to transition open cast mines to underground operations

    As open pit mines reach their economic end of life mine owners are considering the viability of transitioning their open cast mining operations to underground Drawing on their deep level mining expertise in South Africa Worley assists mine owners around the world explore the feasibility of underground life of mine extensions and identify the

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  • Water inrush characteristics and hazard effects during the

    During the transition from open pit to underground mining in iron ore mines water inrush is a prominent problem for mine safety and production In this paper a comprehensive method that incorporates hydrochemical analysis and numerical simulation is proposed to analyse the characteristics of water

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  • Open Pit to Underground Transition and Interaction

    SFX and Citation Linker Frequently asked questions concerning SFX Electronic books The e book database EBC Audiovisual media Research data Alliance and national licences

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  • Measurement of displacement for open pit to underground

    Open pit to underground mining transition is normally resulted from exhausting of shallow resources This is quite dangerous as it may threaten the stability of high steep slopes

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  • Grades are similar to underground miningTrilogy Metals

    The only other time that I ve seen a project of this quality where the grades were similar was in an underground mining scenario said CEO Tony Giardini However Arctic is mineable in an open pit scenario I also want to highlight that Arctic contains a significant amount of gold and silver At current spot metal prices the precious

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  • South Africa s Largest Open Pit MineNASA

    Copper mining began at Palabora in 1965 and by 1967 the open pit mine was fully operational The hole reached 800 meters down into the Earth before the depletion of resources made it uneconomical to continue mining in the pit Operations moved underground below the pit and mostly out of sight in the early 2000s

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  • Optimizing the open pit to underground mining transition

    An early transition model assigns large aggregated blocks to be extracted via open pit or underground mining methods in order to maximize the value of the deposit Bakhtavar Shahriar Oraee 2008 This idea was later improved to include the time element and to capture underground capital costs Newman Yano Rubio 2013 In both previous transition models there is little differentiation between the mining units used above and below ground

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  • PDF Transition from open pit to underground as a new

    The present mine plan is for open pit operations and is to cease operating in 2013 at a depth of 1100m and the remained deposit must be economically exploited by block caving 4 5 Grasberg copper gold mine in Indonesia is known as a combined mine of open pit and underground Mining by open pit method will finish by 2015 6 7

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  • The Mining Life Open Pit vs UndergroundMICROMINE

    Working underground is usually a hot noisy humid and dark business but working in an open pit mine can expose workers to weather conditions which can cause problems as well Working in the mining industry in any capacity is hard work that demands exceptional concentration and talent in order to stay safe in the environment of heavy

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  • Considerations for open pit to underground transition

    Scenario 2Underground mining below existing open pit Scenario 3Open pit mining through existing underground working This paper provides an introduction in contextual information that practitioners having to deal with open pit underground interaction need to consider Keywords transition open pit underground interaction risk

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  • OPEN PIT MINING THROUGH UNDERGROUND WORKINGS

    OPEN PIT MINING THROUGH UNDERGROUND WORKINGS 4 0 MAKING THE HAZARD VISIBLE All areas of a working bench or flitch that are likely to be underlain by underground workings must be clearly marked and access to this area must be controlled by a specific set of procedures These procedures should specify the personnel responsible for monitoring and

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  • PDF Transition from Open Pit to Underground as a New

    Underground mining however can be considered as being more acceptable than surface mi ning from environmental and social perspectives In addition underground mining will often have a sm aller

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  • Everything You Need To Know About Open Pit Mining

    Open pit mining is an operation that relies on digging an open pit as an effective way of accessing the desired ores and materials It is a method of mining the Earth s surface to extract minerals and various substances that exist close to the mining site s surface

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  • Differences between underground mining and open pit mining

    The Witwatersrand gold mine in South Africa is an excellent example of underground mining that exploits gold from ancient rocks at depths of up to 4 km underground What is open pit mining On the other hand open pit mining is the most common mining and ranges from very low priced minerals to finely disseminated gold deposits

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  • Open Pit to Underground Transition and Interaction

    SFX and Citation Linker Frequently asked questions concerning SFX Electronic books The e book database EBC Audiovisual media Research data Alliance and national licences

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  • Underground versus Open Pit MiningFirwin Corporation

    Unlike open pit underground mining requires that you take into account a wide variety of added requirements These include complex ventilation systems area and local ground support and of course finding a consistent safe and cost effective way to get your materials to the surface

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  • Planning Considerations For Transition From Open Pit To

    Planning Considerations The efficient transition from open pit mining to an underground operation requires extensive planning For a large mining operation planning could last as long as 20 years The main factors and activities that need to be taken into account in the planning cycle are as follows Definition of the ore body

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  • Disposal Methods on Solid Wastes from Mines in

    underground mining the discharge of solid waste could be reduced into a very low degree For a mine in transition from open pit to underground mining backfill the opencast can improve the stress distribution of opencast side and prevent the rain water flow into the underground mine 11 3 4 Regeneration of ground vegetation

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  • Everything You Need To Know About Open Pit Mining

    Open pit mining also known as strip mining is the process of extracting ore minerals and/or fossil fuels that occurs on the surface of a particular mining site When considering all the mining operations in the world at least 40 percent of mining takes place at

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  • Gold Ridge open pit mine turns into an underground mine

    Gold Ridge open pit mine The Gold Ridge Mining operations has turned from an open pit mine to an underground mining This came after last year s drillings at the mine site which revealed interesting findings of valuable gold found under the current pit Director of mines Nicholas Biliki told SIBC News Mr Biliki said the company is looking

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  • THE TRANSITION FROM OPEN PIT TO UNDERGROUND

    Palabora mine is one of the steepest and deepest large open pits in the world with a radius of about 1 5 km and a depth of about 800 m The geology of the mine a volcanic plug is extremely complex Besides various rock types up to ten types at the mine with different properties there are four main faults crossing the pit and 3 dominant joint sets ubiquitous in the mine Ground water is also

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  • Mining Options Optimization Open Pit to Underground

    M Comparatively implementing open pit mining generates a higher NPV thanunderground mining However considering the investment required for these mining options underground mining generates a better return on investment than open pit mining The results also show that in

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  • Differences between underground mining and open pit mining

    What is underground mining When the minerals are found in rich veins but in large volumes of sterile rocks the only way to mine them is the underground mining method These consist of opening galleries tunnels and other forms of mining art that allow us to take advantage in an orderly manner of the veins in their three dimensional development

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  • Optimizing the Open Pit to Underground Mining Transition

    Optimizing the Open Pit to Underground Mining Transition Barry Kinga Marcos Goycooleab A Newmanc aColorado School of Mines Operations Research with Engineering ORwE PhD Program Golden Colorado 80401 USA bUniversidad Adolfo Ibanez ˜ School of Business Penalol˜ en ´ Santiago Chile cColorado School of Mines Mechanical Engineering Department Golden Colorado

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  • A model for determining optimal transition depth over

    A model for determining optimal transition depth over from open pit to underground mining E Bakhtavar Amirkabir University of Technology Iran K Shahriar Amirkabir University of Technology Iran K Oraee University of Stirling UK Abstract In this paper the authors consider to the deposits which have potential for exploiting initially by Open Pit

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  • NUMERICAL MODELING OF OPEN PIT OP TO

    NUMERICAL MODELING OF OPEN PIT OP TO UNDERGROUND UG TRANSITION IN COAL MINING PHU MINH VUONG NGUYEN ZBIGNIEW NIEDBALSKI AGH University of Science and Technology E mail nguyen agh edu niedzbig agh edu Abstract The primary objective of the present paper is an attempt at evaluating the influence of sub level caving operations on the

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  • PDF Open Pit to Underground Mining − Where Is the

    Open pit or underground methods separately are not practicable for the extraction of this kind of deposits therefore a combined mining of open pit with one of underground

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  • PDF Transition from Open Pit to Underground as a New

    Transition from Open Pit to Underground as a New Optimization Challenge in Mining Engineering September 2009 Journal of Mining Science 45 5 DOI 10 1007/s Project

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  • Paper Considerations for open pit to underground

    Brummer R Li H Moss A 2006 The transition from open pit to underground mining An unusual slope failure mechanism at Palabora Proceedings of International Symposium on Stability of Rock Slopes in Open Pit Mining and Civil Engineering Situations The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Johannesburg pp 411–420

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  • Planning Considerations For Transition From Open Pit To

    Key considerations to evaluate are open pit stability shaft stability dilution mud rushes and air blasts and mining method selection The efficient transition from open pit mining to an underground operation requires extensive planning For a large mining operation planning could last as long as 20 years

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  • Optimizing the open pit to underground mining transition

    Downloadable with restrictions A large number of metal deposits are initially extracted via surface methods but then transition underground without necessarily ceasing to operate above ground Currently most mine operators schedule the open pit and underground operations independently and then merge the two creating a myopic solution We present a methodology to maximize the NPV for

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